Pakistan Dictionary

Pakistan is located in South Asia, bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan and Iran to the west, China to the north, and the Arabian Sea to the south. Its strategic location has made it a melting pot of cultures and civilizations throughout history.



Pakistan’s climate varies from region to region, ranging from arid and semi-arid in the south to temperate and alpine in the north. The country experiences four distinct seasons: winter (December to February), spring (March to May), summer (June to August), and autumn (September to November).


Pakistan is home to a diverse array of wildlife, including snow leopards, Markhor (a type of wild goat), Himalayan brown bears, and a variety of bird species. Its national parks and wildlife reserves provide habitats for these animals and contribute to conservation efforts.

Longest Rivers

Pakistan is traversed by several major rivers, including:

  1. Indus River: The longest river in Pakistan, the Indus originates in Tibet and flows through the length of the country before emptying into the Arabian Sea.
  2. Jhelum River: A tributary of the Indus, the Jhelum River flows through the Punjab region of Pakistan.
  3. Chenab River: Another tributary of the Indus, the Chenab is one of the largest rivers in Pakistan, originating in Indian-administered Kashmir.

Highest Mountains

Pakistan is home to some of the world’s highest peaks, including:

  1. K2: The second-highest mountain in the world, K2, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen, is located in the Karakoram Range in northern Pakistan.
  2. Nanga Parbat: Known as the “Killer Mountain,” Nanga Parbat is the ninth-highest mountain in the world and is located in the western Himalayas.
  3. Broad Peak: Also located in the Karakoram Range, Broad Peak is the 12th highest mountain in the world.



Pakistan has a rich archaeological heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back to the Paleolithic era. The ancient sites of Mehrgarh and Harappa provide insights into the Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world’s oldest urban civilizations.

Ancient Civilizations

Ancient Civilizations (Continued)

Pakistan has been home to several ancient civilizations, including:

  • Indus Valley Civilization: Flourishing around 2600 BCE, the Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, with sophisticated city planning and advanced drainage systems.
  • Gandhara Civilization: Centered in the Peshawar Valley and Swat Valley, the Gandhara Civilization was known for its Buddhist art and culture, with influences from Greek, Persian, and Indian traditions.
  • Gupta Empire: Although primarily located in India, the Gupta Empire also extended into parts of present-day Pakistan, contributing to the region’s cultural and architectural development.

Islamic Period

Islam arrived in South Asia in the 7th century CE, and Pakistan became a center for Islamic civilization and learning. The region saw the rise of several Islamic dynasties, including the Ghaznavids, Delhi Sultanate, and Mughal Empire, which left a lasting impact on its culture, architecture, and society.

British Rule and Independence

In the 19th century, Pakistan came under British colonial rule as part of British India. The struggle for independence led to the partition of British India in 1947, resulting in the creation of Pakistan as a separate Muslim-majority nation. Pakistan’s founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, became its first Governor-General, and the country adopted its first constitution in 1956.

Modern Pakistan

Since gaining independence, Pakistan has experienced periods of political instability, military rule, and democratic transition. The country has grappled with challenges such as economic development, social inequality, and regional conflicts. However, Pakistan has also made significant strides in areas such as education, healthcare, and technology, and remains an important player on the global stage.



Pakistan has a population of over 220 million people, making it the fifth most populous country in the world. The population is ethnically and culturally diverse, with Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, and Baloch forming the largest ethnic groups.

Language and Religion

Urdu and English are the official languages of Pakistan, with Urdu serving as the lingua franca and English used in government, education, and business. Islam is the predominant religion, with the majority of Pakistanis adhering to the Sunni branch of Islam, followed by Shia Muslims and other religious minorities such as Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs.


Pakistan’s economy is diverse, with agriculture, industry, and services sectors contributing to its GDP. The country is known for its textiles, agriculture products, and manufacturing industries. However, Pakistan faces challenges such as poverty, unemployment, and income inequality, and has undertaken various economic reforms to promote growth and development.

Administrative Divisions

Pakistan is divided into four provinces, one federal territory, and two autonomous territories. Here is a list of the administrative divisions along with their respective populations:

  1. Punjab Province – Population: 110 million
  2. Sindh Province – Population: 50 million
  3. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province – Population: 35 million
  4. Balochistan Province – Population: 12 million
  5. Islamabad Capital Territory – Population: 2 million
  6. Gilgit-Baltistan Territory – Population: 2 million
  7. Azad Jammu and Kashmir Territory – Population: 5 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

Pakistan’s largest cities by population include:

  1. Karachi – Population: 14 million
  2. Lahore – Population: 11 million
  3. Faisalabad – Population: 3.2 million
  4. Rawalpindi – Population: 2.1 million
  5. Multan – Population: 1.9 million
  6. Hyderabad – Population: 1.7 million
  7. Gujranwala – Population: 1.6 million
  8. Peshawar – Population: 1.5 million
  9. Islamabad – Population: 1.1 million
  10. Quetta – Population: 1 million

Education Systems

Free Education

Pakistan’s constitution mandates free and compulsory education for children between the ages of 5 and 16. However, access to quality education remains a challenge, particularly in rural and remote areas, due to factors such as poverty, lack of infrastructure, and gender disparities.

Top Universities

Pakistan is home to several top universities, including:

  1. Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
  2. Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore
  3. National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad
  4. Aga Khan University, Karachi
  5. University of the Punjab, Lahore

These universities offer a wide range of undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs in various fields of study.



Pakistan has several major airports, including:

  1. Jinnah International Airport, Karachi
  2. Allama Iqbal International Airport, Lahore
  3. Islamabad International Airport, Islamabad
  4. Benazir Bhutto International Airport, Rawalpindi
  5. Bacha Khan International Airport, Peshawar


Pakistan has an extensive railway network operated by Pakistan Railways, connecting major cities and towns across the country. The total length of railway tracks in Pakistan is approximately 11,881 kilometers.


Pakistan has a well-developed network of highways and roads, including the famous Grand Trunk Road (N-5) and the Motorway network. The total length of paved roads in Pakistan is approximately 264,000 kilometers.


Pakistan has two major seaports:

  1. Karachi Port: Located in Karachi, it is the largest and busiest seaport in Pakistan, handling the majority of the country’s maritime trade.
  2. Port Qasim: located near Karachi, Port Qasim is the country’s second-largest seaport and an important hub for container shipping and industrial activities.

Country Facts

  • Population: 220 million
  • Capital: Islamabad
  • Official Language: Urdu
  • Religion: Islam
  • Currency: Pakistani Rupee (PKR)
  • ISO Country Code: PK
  • International Calling Code: +92
  • Top-Level Domain: .pk